Dr. Eugene A. Stead, Jr., established the first formal educational program to educate Physician Assistants at Duke University in 1965. His first pools of students were former military corpsmen and medics with prior health care experience. Four conferences were held at Duke University to propagate the education of PAs using the 2-year Duke curriculum model, to address accreditation, certification and legislative issues and to encourage private foundations, federal and state agencies to fund and support the develop of the PA concept. Other types of educational programs emerged during this time, notable are the four-year baccalaureate program established at Alderson-Broadus College by Dr. Hu Myers, the MEDEX program established at the University of Washington by Dr. Richard Smith, the Child Health Associate Program at the University of Colorado by Dr. Henry Smith and the Surgeon Assistant Program at the University of Alabama, Birmingham by Dr. John Kirklin. By the end of this era, national accreditation and certification standards had been developed and model legislation had been drafted for state legislators to enact. The four pillars of the PA profession came into being: The American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA), the Association of Physician Assistant Programs (APAP, now PAEA); the Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs for Assistants to the Primary Care Physician (JRC-PA, now ARC-PA); and the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA).